Django ORM常用操作

##################################################################
# PUBLIC METHODS THAT ALTER ATTRIBUTES AND RETURN A NEW QUERYSET #
##################################################################
 
def all(self)
    # 获取所有的数据对象
 
def filter(self, *args, **kwargs)
    # 条件查询
    # 条件可以是:参数,字典,Q
 
def exclude(self, *args, **kwargs)
    # 条件查询
    # 条件可以是:参数,字典,Q
 
def select_related(self, *fields)
     性能相关:表之间进行join连表操作,一次性获取关联的数据。
     model.tb.objects.all().select_related()
     model.tb.objects.all().select_related('外键字段')
     model.tb.objects.all().select_related('外键字段__外键字段')
 
def prefetch_related(self, *lookups)
    性能相关:多表连表操作时速度会慢,使用其执行多次SQL查询在Python代码中实现连表操作。
            # 获取所有用户表
            # 获取用户类型表where id in (用户表中的查到的所有用户ID)
            models.UserInfo.objects.prefetch_related('外键字段')
 
 
 
            from django.db.models import Count, Case, When, IntegerField
            Article.objects.annotate(
                numviews=Count(Case(
                    When(readership__what_time__lt=treshold, then=1),
                    output_field=CharField(),
                ))
            )
 
            students = Student.objects.all().annotate(num_excused_absences=models.Sum(
                models.Case(
                    models.When(absence__type='Excused', then=1),
                default=0,
                output_field=models.IntegerField()
            )))
 
def annotate(self, *args, **kwargs)
    # 用于实现聚合group by查询
 
    from django.db.models import Count, Avg, Max, Min, Sum
 
    v = models.UserInfo.objects.values('u_id').annotate(uid=Count('u_id'))
    # SELECT u_id, COUNT(ui) AS `uid` FROM UserInfo GROUP BY u_id
 
    v = models.UserInfo.objects.values('u_id').annotate(uid=Count('u_id')).filter(uid__gt=1)
    # SELECT u_id, COUNT(ui_id) AS `uid` FROM UserInfo GROUP BY u_id having count(u_id) > 1
 
    v = models.UserInfo.objects.values('u_id').annotate(uid=Count('u_id',distinct=True)).filter(uid__gt=1)
    # SELECT u_id, COUNT( DISTINCT ui_id) AS `uid` FROM UserInfo GROUP BY u_id having count(u_id) > 1
 
def distinct(self, *field_names)
    # 用于distinct去重
    models.UserInfo.objects.values('nid').distinct()
    # select distinct nid from userinfo
 
    注:只有在PostgreSQL中才能使用distinct进行去重
 
def order_by(self, *field_names)
    # 用于排序
    models.UserInfo.objects.all().order_by('-id','age')
 
def extra(self, select=None, where=None, params=None, tables=None, order_by=None, select_params=None)
    # 构造额外的查询条件或者映射,如:子查询
     
    UserInfo.objects.extra(where=['headline ? %s'], params=['Lennon'])
    # select * from userinfo where headline > 'Lennon'
     
    UserInfo.objects.extra(where=["foo='a' OR bar = 'a'", "baz = 'a'"])
    # select * from userinfo where (foo='a' OR bar = 'a') and baz = 'a'
     
    UserInfo.objects.extra(select={'new_id': "select col from sometable where othercol > %s"}, select_params=(1,))
        """
        select
            id,
            name,
            (select col from sometable where othercol > 1) as new_id
        """
    UserInfo.objects.extra(select={'new_id': "select id from tb where id > %s"}, select_params=(1,), order_by=['-nid'])
 
 def reverse(self):
    # 倒序
    models.UserInfo.objects.all().order_by('-nid').reverse()
    # 注:如果存在order_by,reverse则是倒序,如果多个排序则一一倒序
 
 
 def defer(self, *fields):
    models.UserInfo.objects.defer('username','id')
    或
    models.UserInfo.objects.filter(...).defer('username','id')
    #映射中排除某列数据
 
 def only(self, *fields):
    #仅取某个表中的数据
     models.UserInfo.objects.only('username','id')
     或
     models.UserInfo.objects.filter(...).only('username','id')
 
 def using(self, alias):
     指定使用的数据库,参数为别名(setting中的设置)
      
     models.UserInfo.objects.filter(id=5).using('db1')
 
 
##################################################
# PUBLIC METHODS THAT RETURN A QUERYSET SUBCLASS #
##################################################
 
def raw(self, raw_query, params=None, translations=None, using=None):
    # 执行原生SQL
    models.UserInfo.objects.raw('select * from userinfo where id > 10 ')
 
    # 如果SQL是其他表时,必须将名字设置为当前UserInfo对象的主键列名
    models.UserInfo.objects.raw('select id as nid from 其他表')
 
    # 为原生SQL设置参数
    models.UserInfo.objects.raw('select id as nid from userinfo where nid>%s', params=[12,])
 
    # 将获取的到列名转换为指定列名
    name_map = {'first': 'first_name', 'last': 'last_name', 'bd': 'birth_date', 'pk': 'id'}
    Person.objects.raw('SELECT * FROM some_other_table', translations=name_map)
 
    # 指定数据库
    models.UserInfo.objects.raw('select * from userinfo', using="default")
 
################### 原生SQL ###################
from django.db import connection, connections
cursor = connection.cursor()  # cursor = connections['default'].cursor()
cursor.execute("""SELECT * from auth_user where id = %s""", [1])
row = cursor.fetchone() # fetchall()/fetchmany(..)
 
 
def values(self, *fields):
    # 获取每行数据为字典格式
 
def values_list(self, *fields, **kwargs):
    # 获取每行数据为元祖
 
def dates(self, field_name, kind, order='ASC'):
    # 根据时间进行某一部分进行去重查找并截取指定内容
    # kind只能是:"year"(年), "month"(年-月), "day"(年-月-日)
    # order只能是:"ASC"  "DESC"
    # 并获取转换后的时间
        - year : 年-01-01
        - month: 年-月-01
        - day  : 年-月-日
 
    models.DatePlus.objects.dates('ctime','day','DESC')
 
def datetimes(self, field_name, kind, order='ASC', tzinfo=None):
    # 根据时间进行某一部分进行去重查找并截取指定内容,将时间转换为指定时区时间
    # kind只能是 "year", "month", "day", "hour", "minute", "second"
    # order只能是:"ASC"  "DESC"
    # tzinfo时区对象
    models.DDD.objects.datetimes('ctime','hour',tzinfo=pytz.UTC)
    models.DDD.objects.datetimes('ctime','hour',tzinfo=pytz.timezone('Asia/Shanghai'))
 
    """
    pip3 install pytz
    import pytz
    pytz.all_timezones
    pytz.timezone(‘Asia/Shanghai’)
    """
 
def none(self):
    # 空QuerySet对象
 
 
####################################
# METHODS THAT DO DATABASE QUERIES #
####################################
 
def aggregate(self, *args, **kwargs):
   # 聚合函数,获取字典类型聚合结果
   from django.db.models import Count, Avg, Max, Min, Sum
   result = models.UserInfo.objects.aggregate(k=Count('u_id', distinct=True), n=Count('nid'))
   ===> {'k': 3, 'n': 4}
 
def count(self):
   # 获取个数
 
def get(self, *args, **kwargs):
   # 获取单个对象
 
def create(self, **kwargs):
   # 创建对象
 
def bulk_create(self, objs, batch_size=None):
    # 批量插入
    # batch_size表示一次插入的个数
    objs = [
        models.DDD(name='r11'),
        models.DDD(name='r22')
    ]
    models.DDD.objects.bulk_create(objs, 10)
 
def get_or_create(self, defaults=None, **kwargs):
    # 如果存在,则获取,否则,创建
    # defaults 指定创建时,其他字段的值
    obj, created = models.UserInfo.objects.get_or_create(username='root1', defaults={'email': '1111111','u_id': 2, 't_id': 2})
 
def update_or_create(self, defaults=None, **kwargs):
    # 如果存在,则更新,否则,创建
    # defaults 指定创建时或更新时的其他字段
    obj, created = models.UserInfo.objects.update_or_create(username='root1', defaults={'email': '1111111','u_id': 2, 't_id': 1})
 
def first(self):
   # 获取第一个
 
def last(self):
   # 获取最后一个
 
def in_bulk(self, id_list=None):
   # 根据主键ID进行查找
   id_list = [11,21,31]
   models.DDD.objects.in_bulk(id_list)
    
   models.User.objects.filter(id__in=[11,21,31])
 
def delete(self):
   # 删除
 
def update(self, **kwargs):
    # 更新
 
def exists(self):
   # 是否有结果
    pass

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